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The French Astronomer Pierre Jules C. Janssen who is Credited With the Discovery of the Gas "Helium"
c. 1880s, "P. J. C. Janssen" French Astronomer Cabinet Card Photograph, by Reutlinger, Paris, Extremely Fine.
c. 1880s Identified in lower margin on its front, with some small loss to corners and rubbing to the outer borders, as shown, loss to back of board from being removed from an album, with archive labels on verso, overall in nice condition for display. Pierre Jules Csar Janssen (1824 " 1907), usually known in French as Jules Janssen, was a French Astronomer who, along with the English scientist Joseph Norman Lockyer, is credited with discovering the Gas "Helium". Rare.
Pierre Jules Csar Janssen) (1824 " 1907), usually known in French as Jules Janssen, was a French astronomer who, along with the English scientist Joseph Norman Lockyer, is credited with discovering the gas helium.

Janssen was born in Paris and studied mathematics and physics at the faculty of sciences. He taught at the lyce Charlemagne in 1853, and in the school of architecture 1865-1871, but his energies were mainly devoted to various scientific missions entrusted to him. Thus, in 1857 he went to Peru in order to determine the magnetic equator; in 1861-1862 and 1864.

He studied telluric absorption in the solar spectrum in Italy and Switzerland; in 1867 he carried out optical and magnetic experiments at the Azores; he successfully observed both transits of Venus, that of 1874 in Japan, that of 1882 at Oran in Algeria; and he took part in a long series of solar eclipse-expeditions, e.g. to Trani (1867), Guntur (1868), Algiers (1870), Siam (1875), the Caroline Islands (1883), and to Alcosebre in Spain (1905).

To see the eclipse of 1870 he escaped from besieged Paris in a balloon (that eclipse was obscured by cloud cover, however). In 1868 Janssen discovered how to observe solar prominences without an eclipse. While observing the solar eclipse of August 18, 1868 at Guntur, in Andhra Pradesh, British India, he noticed a bright yellow line with a wavelength of 587.49 nm in the spectrum of the chromosphere of the Sun. This was the first observation of this particular spectral line, and one possible source for it was an element not yet discovered on the earth.

Janssen was at first ridiculed since no element had ever been detected in space before being found on Earth. On 20 October of the same year, Joseph Norman Lockyer also observed the same yellow line in the solar spectrum and concluded that it was caused by an unknown element, after unsuccessfully testing to see if it were some new type of hydrogen. This was the first time a chemical element was discovered on an extraterrestrial body before being found on the earth. Lockyer and the English chemist Edward Frankland named the element with the helios.

At the great Indian eclipse of 1868 that occurred in Guntur, Janssen also demonstrated the gaseous nature of the red prominences, and devised a method of observing them under ordinary daylight conditions. One main purpose of his spectroscopic inquiries was to answer the question whether the Sun contains oxygen or not. An indispensable preliminary was the virtual elimination of oxygen-absorption in the Earth's atmosphere, and his bold project of establishing an observatory on the top of Mont Blanc was prompted by a perception of the advantages to be gained by reducing the thickness of air through which observations have to be made.

This observatory, the foundations of which were fixed in the snow that appears to cover the summit to a depth of ten metres, was built in September 1893, and Janssen, in spite of his sixty-nine years, made the ascent and spent four days taking observations. In 1875, Janssen was appointed director of the new astrophysical observatory established by the French government at Meudon, and set on foot there in 1876 the remarkable series of solar photographs collected in his great Atlas de photographies solaires (1904). The first volume of the Annales de l'observatoire de Meudon was published by him in 1896.

Janssen died at Meudon on 23 December 1907 and was buried at Pre Lachaise Cemetery in Paris. During his life he was made a Knight of the Legion of Honor and a Foreign Member of the Royal Society of London. Craters on both Mars and the moon are named in his honor.
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